Footnotes

When you write an essay you include quotes, paraphrasing and statistics from books, websites and other sources to support your point of view. You need to acknowledge the source you have used by adding a footnote into your essay for each source used, every time you use the source. These footnotes show how much you have researched, and help your teacher locate the source if they want to check the information.

When you write an assignment you must include footnotes when you:

           Quote directly from a source word for word.

OR

           Paraphrase a source.

Paraphrasing means: to write your own version of someone's words or alter someone's words although the idea expressed is still theirs. You can paraphrase if the information that you have found is too long to quote or is not clear.

You still need to include a bibliography even if you are adding footnotes.

 An essay with a quote and a footnote

The example below shows that quotes that a single quotation mark at the start and the end of the quote and then a footnote.

 

 

 

Paraphrasing with footnotes

The example below shows that  two footnotes have been made using paraphrases from the same book.

 

 

How to make footnotes

 

 

 

 

1. When you add a quote or a paraphrase, after the full stop, go to the Word ribbon at the top of the screen.
2. Click on the Insert tab.
3. Choose Footnote from the list.
4. A dialog box will appear.
5. Click on the Insert button at the bottom of the box.  This will add a tiny number at the end of the sentence.

 

 

 

Your cursor will automatically go to the bottom of the page where a line and the number one appear; this is the spot where you list the book or websites that you have used.

For a book with one author

Type in the details of your book in this order:

1. Author's surname (comma) followed by first initial
2. Year of publication (comma)
3. Title written in italics (comma)
4.  Publisher (comma)
5.  Place of publication – eg. Melbourne (full stop)

Example:

Lambert, D 2000, Guide to Dinosaurs, Dorling Kindersley, London.

For a book with multiple authors

1. Author's surname (comma) followed by first initial (comma) the next author's surname (comma) followed by first initial ampersand (&) and the last author's surname (comma) followed by first initial
2. Date of publication (comma)
3. Title written in italics (comma)
4.  Publisher (comma)
5.  Place of publication – eg. Melbourne (full stop)

Example:

Burton, J., Smithfield, R. & Lewis, M. 1991, The age of Dinosaurs: a photographic record, Grange Books, London.

For a book with editors

1. Editor's surname (comma) followed by first initial (comma) Write (ed) after their name to indicate that the text has been edited not written by this person.
2. Date of publication (comma)
3. Title written in italics (comma)
4.  Publisher (comma)
5.  Place of publication – eg. Melbourne (full stop)

Example:

Cotton, B (ed) 1990, The new guide to graphic design, Phaidon, London.

 

The second time you reference a book you only have to write:

1. Author surname (comma) followed by first initial (full stop)

2. Page number your information is from. Begin with p.

Weber, M. p. 38

 

For a website with an author

1. Author's surname (comma) followed by first initial
2. Date that the site was created or updated, if it can be found (full stop)
3. Title of the page written in italics (comma)
4.  Month, Day and Year that you viewed the website. Begin with Retrieved
5. URL, website address eg. http://www… Begin with from

Example:

Fogt, R 2010, The day you were born Calculator, Retrieved May 13, 2013, from http://www.onlineconversion.com/dayborn.htm

Website with no author

1. Title of the page written in italics (comma)
2. Date that the site was created or updated, if it can be found (full stop)
4.  Month, Day and Year that you viewed the website. Begin with Retrieved
5. URL, website address eg. http://www… Begin with from

Example:

Internal Workings of the Soviet System, Retrieved May 13, 2013, from http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/intro1.html

 

The second time you reference a website you only have to write:

Authors name and title of the article or page.

Historylearningsite.co.uk World War One.

 

To see how to write a bibliography see the Bibliography page in the General Info Tab

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