in-text referencing (Harvard style)

When you write an essay you include quotes, paraphrasing and statistics from books, websites and other sources to support your point of view. You need to acknowledge the source you have used by making an in-text reference in your essay for each source used, every time you use the source. The in-text references you add to your essay show how much you have researched, and help your teacher locate the source if they want to check the information.

When you write an assignment you must include in-text references when you:         

           Quote directly from a source word for word.

 OR

           Paraphrase a source.

Paraphrasing means: to write your own version of someone’s words or alter someone’s words although the idea expressed is still theirs. You can paraphrase if the information that you have found is too long to quote or is not clear.

You still need to include a bibliography even if you are using in-text references.

Quote a book: Harvard Style

To write a direct quote in your essay, use the exact words from the book. Then use quotation marks " at the start and the end of the quote. Then, in brackets write the Authors name, Year of publication and page number the quote came from.

Book example:

In the Battle of Java "long range shooting from both sides was generally ineffective, despite the spotter aircraft that the Japanese were able to employ" (Lowe, 2011, p.35).

Quote a website: Harvard Style

To write a direct quote in your essay, use the exact words from the website. Then use quotation marks " at the start and the end of the quote. Then, in brackets write the Authors or the company that owns the sites name, year of publication if you can find it and paragraph number the quote came from.

Website example:

In World War 2 the WAAAF contributed greatly to change in women’s roles, as it was the first military organisation in Australia for women that focused on core military work instead of sidelining women into only tending to the sick and injured. “In all areas except pay and entitlements women were treated the same as men in the Royal Australian Air Force.” (Doidge 2001, para 11).

Paraphrase books

If the information that you have found is too long to quote or is not clear you can still use it in by paraphrasing it which means to write your own version of someone or alter someone’s words but the idea expressed is still theirs. To use a paraphrase in your essay you use your version of their text and then write the authors name and date in brackets at the end of the sentence. You do not need page numbers.

Book example:

 In the Battle of Java long range shooting by Japanese forces was virtually worthless as only one shot out of 1,161 fired shells was an effective hit (Lowe, 2011).

Website example:

In World War 2 the WAAAF contributed greatly to change in women’s roles as it was the first military organisation in Australia for women that focused on core military work instead of sidelining women into only tending to the sick and injured. WAAAF was part of the Royal Australian Air Force so women were treated the same as men except for pay rates (Doidge 2001).

If you are still not sure have a look at this handy guide from Deakin University. http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/study-support/referencing/harvard 

Even when you do in text referencing you still have to include a Bibliography (also known as a reference list), go to the How to write a Bibliography tab under General Information!

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